11/1/09

INTRODUCTION
Science of Human Behavior








In the realm of the universe, man constitutes an integral part of nature, not a critical or even an important part. The individual human being represents a very complex composition of atoms and molecules, constituting multiple cell structures and organs communicating together and functioning as a whole. Utilizing the senses, signals are sent to the brain triggering responses through the central nervous system; the highly sophisticated network of ten billion neurons, each connected to the others through a thousand synapses. These signals stimulate the production of various neurotransmitters and proteins at the synapse, generating various feelings, including: joy, anger or surprise. The brain evaluates their input signals using memory of past events and the individual’s unique genetic and environmental blueprint triggering a particular action.
The process, by which man responds to a signal, is not random, but rather controlled by a set of natural laws of quantum mechanics and electrodynamics. The resulting behavior is similar to the behavior of a ball moving according to Newton’s law of gravity or light beams forming an image in accordance with laws of reflection and refraction that govern the behavior of light. When a ball drops from your hand, it first descends slowly and speeds up as it falls to the ground. The force of gravity accelerates the ball down. Knowing that the acceleration is a constant, we can accurately predict that a ball dropped from a window 16 feet high takes 1 second to hit the ground. According to the laws of optics, we can also predict that if you stand 3 feet in front of a plain mirror, you will see your image 3 feet behind the mirror. The physical laws are consistent and predict accurately what happens at a later time.
Macroscopic versus the Microscopic
The Big versus the Small
When Galileo studied the motion of a metal ball falling, or Newton investigated the fall of apples, they had no idea that these were composed of subatomic components of electrons, protons, neutrons and many others. Their laws did not cover the behavior of these subatomic particles or even larger molecules. Even though they did not know what is going on within the microscopic domain, they were able to discover the laws of nature that predicts the fall of a ball to the ground and the path of a planet around the sun. Newton's laws predict the macroscopic behavior of planets, baseballs flying to a home run, and cars speeding around a racetrack. We don’t need to know what the electrons, atoms and molecules in these objects are doing. Another example is the Temperature of the room, it measures the overall Macroscopic behavior of all the air molecules in the room. We can measure the Temperature without knowing the Microscopic properties of each individual air molecule in the room.
Man like a ball or a car is made of a very complex composition of Microscopic atoms and molecules, constituting multiple cell structures and organs communicating together and functioning as a whole unit in a Macroscopic world. The same physical laws that apply to the function of atoms and molecules in a living cell on a microscopic scale, also apply to a human as a whole, resulting in his behavior on a Macroscopic level. Like Newton, Faraday and Ohm we do not know the Microscopic behavior within the neurons in the brain, but we know that there is a correspondence with the resulting Macroscopic human behavior in accordance with the laws of Physics.







Illustration 1: Microscopic world of an atom, complex atom, molecules.
Common to illustration 2 and 3 below




Illustration 2: Macroscopic world Baseball, ball falling, and car











Illustration 3: Microscopic world of Neuron, Macroscopic world of brain, man and behavior




Do You Have a Choice?

Events in the behavior of an individual, whether child or adult, is governed by laws that, when applied uniformly, would produce the same behavioral outcome, as the falling ball. When a person moves a hand to scratch his forehead, an action taken because he senses an itch, cause and effect is demonstrated. The mechanism in the body that generates that action in response to the itch is the same, regardless of the individual. So when children scratch a mosquito bite, it is not instinct but rather the result of processes controlled by some, so far unknown, complex set of laws.
The only difference between the action of a falling ball and human action is the complexity of the system to which the laws of nature apply. The ball has no internal mechanism to change the outcome and falls the same way every time. In the case of human behavior, these laws are further complicated by the addition of stored memory of past events and experiences that modify the reaction in various ways depending on the uniqueness of the individual (in terms of genetic and environmental differences). So what appears as a random event, is not random at all, but perfectly executed and obeys a set of natural laws too complex for us to comprehend. Researchers in psychology and human behavior may try to draw some correlation of the probability of reactions in response to some action or an event. These experiments were limited due to the inability of researchers to hold constant many variables in order to draw concrete relationships between specific actions and reactions. The application of the scientific method has been limited by the inability of psychological experimenters to isolate and to fix the important physical factors. Identifying and isolating the many factors involved has to this day been an obstacle to the study of behavior. Even if the same set of electrical, and chemical signals going through two separate individuals are identically processed by their complex brains, there is no guarantee that the same behavioral outcome will result because they have varying memories, and other unique traits that will cause them to react differently. Accordingly, an individual may feel the sensation of the need to scratch an itch, but because the individual’s skin blisters when scratched and decides not to scratch. It is said “that young children will scratch a mosquito bite instinctively". It is not instinct, but rather the result of processes controlled by some, so far somewhat unknown, complex set of laws.
It may seem from this that as a consequence we might hold the individual blameless for any action that they take, whether good or bad, as judged by current cultural standards. This is not to argue that the individual is held harmless and is not responsible for the actions that they take. Behavior is a self-correcting and adaptable process; feedback is always received by the senses and processed by the brain and the entire system. This feedback then is evaluated, a judgment is made and the choice of behavior is selected and executed. Accordingly, even though our actions are expected to some extent, we always have a hand in making or changing what the response is going to be.
This does not invalidate the original thesis that human behavior is governed by a set of complex laws that are constant. What changes are not the inputs, but the uniqueness of the individual processing the resulting behavior. Research in animal behavior shows that in general, animals have no apparent uniqueness and act instinctively, meaning in predictable ways without the burden of conscience and guilt associated with human thought as defined by religious or cultural standards.
An example of this uniform behavior can been seen in the rejection of new ideas, trends or fashion. Galileo was brought before the inquisition for suggesting a new idea; that the earth revolves around the sun when everyone at the time thought that the earth was the stationary center of the universe. New fashions are generally rejected initially before they catch on. Mass reaction to verbal or written input is another example of the uniform application of the physical laws to human behavior. Speakers, appealing to nationalistic or religious passions, can inflame mobs and move crowds to carry out actions at will. Hitler, appealing to nationalistic slogans, was able to move ordinary Germans to believe they were the superior race and that the holocaust was an acceptable solution to the Jewish presence in Europe. If these factors are understood may be we can avoid catastrophes like Hitler’s Nazi Germany and prevent another holocaust from happening to the Jewish or any other people.

Science and Psychology

More than sixty years ago, B. F. Skinner wrote, “Science is more than the mere description of events as they occur. It is an attempt to discover order, to show that different events stand in lawful relation to other events.” Skinner wrote that this order is an assumption on the part of human behavior. If human behavior turns out to be random, then science cannot be applied. Further, that science should be able to describe and predict future behavior. To use science we must assume that all behavior obeys natural laws. Thus, proposing that man is a free agent suggests that free will interfere with the lawful scientific process and produces unpredictable and uncontrolled behavior.
Skinner’s interpretation that free will interferes with the scientific process disregards the fact that free will becomes a part of the scientific process introducing additional components that are integrated into the formulation that leads to the behavioral outcomes. This of course makes specific behavior much harder to predict.
In the last hundred years we have seen enormous advancements in technology, medicine, engineering, space science, and genetics and yet man has changed very little. The inputs that generate feelings of love, security, aggression, greed, and hate are still the same. The laws of nature have not changed. It should not surprise us that, to a large extent, the exposure to the additional advancements in science has not positively impacted the individual man or groups in a way consistent with the improvements and new awareness brought on by science. The hard wiring of the brain and the basic laws it functions under have not evolved much and remain unchanged. It takes millions of years of evolution for our brains to evolve to be more compassionate and ethical. Survival remains the basic drive behind most behavior, it is unfortunate that in order to survive, lying and cheating are traits that facilitate this survival, they were and they continue to be part of the equation.

Current Research in Human Behavior
The human system is a complex non -linear system with many different interacting components. In science when dealing with a multi-molecular complex structure, such as air molecules in a room, it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to deal with properties of individual molecules and even if you could, what would it mean? Physicists have developed overall properties of the collection of molecules in the room. Properties, such as temperature of the room, give us the measure of the average intensity of the molecular energy in the room. Temperature measures the overall behavior of the molecules in the room, without knowing the properties of the individual molecules.
The human open-system is even more complex because of the continuous interaction with other humans through language spoken and written, visual, and psychological, in addition to the effects of environmental factors, such as foods, drugs, air, plants, and water,.
In the past psychological research, has been primarily linear, and has been of limited value when applied to a non-linear more complex open system, like human behavior. Nowadays there is a tremendous amount of important research going on in the various fields of behavioral science branches of neuroscience, neurobiology, neurogenetics and psychology
New technologies in mapping brain functions use the latest techniques, such as dynamic imaging. One technique utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); another is the positron emission tomography (PET). Scientists are able, in a non-invasive way, to obtain images of blood flow in the brain and to locate specific regions stimulated by various inputs. Neuroscientists and neurobiologists employ other non-invasive brain tools, such as electroencephalogram (EEG), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). These techniques have been instrumental in mapping the various regions of the brain and the functions associated with these regions such as the visual cortex, the language, and hearing and emotional centers. Neurobiologist studying the simplest brains of worms to discover pathways through neurocircuits that determines behavior.
Significant research, at MIT and other institutions, in multiple behavior models, using sophisticated mathematics equations, break down the complex behavior into many different alternative models. An assessment can be made of the model representing a particular state the person is exhibiting and then predict the general likelihood of certain outcome behavior. This approach is called “multiple model” or “generalized likelihood”.
On another front, behavior geneticists are conducting important research in which they relate specific genes to a particular type of behavior. An example is the research into the effects of early childhood trauma on depression and the ability to handle stress at a later stage in life. A gene labeled 5-HTT appears in short and long form. Subjects with the long version of this gene appear to be able to deal with adverse situations. Those with the short version of 5-HTT are prone to depression in the face of adversity or trauma. It seems that the vulnerability to depression at a later stage in life arises from both disturbing events experienced at an early stage in life and an inherited short 5-HTT gene.
As important as these research findings, and the light they shed on the functions and operations of the brain, it will be a long time, if ever, before any clear and scientific understanding of human behavior is achieved. The challenge will be how we can integrate the resulting information from this research into a behavioral model.
This book is not based on empirical research in neuroscience, but rather on anecdotal evidence learned from teaching Physics laws over many years and observing the similarity of human behavior and the predictable behavior of nature in accordance with these laws. To establish the validity of these correlations, research was conducted on the effects of various elements of relationships and their impact on the behavior of the individuals involved. A quantification of Relational Entropy, Elastic Constant, Resistance and Uncertainty in relationships, and their effect on behavior were studied with up to 500 individuals participating over a period of 4 years.

It is intended to explain to the reader the reasons we behave the way we do, and how to use this information to achieve your goals for a happier and more conflict free relationships.
In chapter one we intend to explore Newton’s laws of dynamics, those of equilibrium and action reaction to show you how you can get what you desire from others and how to avoid conflict.
In chapter two you will explore Elastic behavior and Hook’s law, this will help you realize how to control your life and advise your children to set the proper limitations in conduct and relationships, and to assess the likelihood of success in your present relationship.
In chapter three you will explore the laws of Thermodynamics and Entropy to learn how you can keep your relationship healthy and how you can assess the suitability of an intended mate.
In chapter four from the dynamics of Newton’s second law you will learn how to persuade people and win arguments.
In chapter five you will explore the laws of uncertainty, and how you can use it for a happier and better life.
In chapter six you will explore the laws of conservation and energy to help you balance and control your life. You will learn the laws of economics in accordance with the laws of physics and how to become rich in the process.
In addendum I, you will find a questionnaires that will assess the predictability of success in your relationship.
In addendum II, you will find a questionnaire that evaluates the elastic constant in your relationship and the happiness level it will produce for you.

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